What did the ancient farmers grow?.
What did ancient farmers grow?
What was the farmer like, and what was his way of life. Types of farming.
- Farmers of Ancient Europe
- Tools of work of the farmer.
- Slavic agricultural rites.
There were no shops in ancient Europe, so food had to be grown by themselves. The land in Europe has always been fertile, the main territory of the land was black soil, and sin was not to use it. We have opened agriculture of the woman. They loosened up the land near the house with sticks, sticks, bones, stones, and placed wild plant seeds in the holes that formed. Later, the plants became cultivated and fully adapted for consumption.
By the way…
Over time, more and more land was needed for sowing, and it had to be cleared and dug up, so that men became involved in agriculture. Sowing cereals and cereals in the fields, as well as hemp and flax, which were used to produce ropes and fabric.
What a farmer was like in Europe, and what was his way of life. Types of farming.
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In Ancient Europe the farmer was very hard-working, working hard. They dressed in the clothes that they sewed themselves. The clothes were free and comfortable both for work and rest. We ate what the land gave us. They grinded grain and baked the first bread. They paid tribute with grain and cloth and paid taxes.
The peasants divided into feudal-dependent and free peasants. Do not confuse feudal-dependent peasants with slaves. The slaves were fully subordinate to their owners, and the peasants paid taxes to the feudal lords, but had their own house, income, land and livestock. Initially, free farmers in Ancient Europe were called “stinkers”, but over time they fell into partial feudal dependence. At the same time, they retained their legal freedom. If the stench took a cup (loan) from the prince, it was transferred to the category of purchases, the lower class of peasants. The purchases had to work for the feudal lord free of charge until they had worked off their debt in full. The even lower class of peasants was called “serfs”. Coldwoods are the same as slaves who are completely dependent on the Principality and have no rights. In 1723, the serfdom was abolished by Peter the Great.
Do you know what kind of farming prevailed among the eastern Slavs? The most dominant farming systems of the eastern Slavs were called slash-and-burn system and perelog. .
The system used by farmers depended on natural and climatic conditions. The slash-and-burn system prevailed in the north in the Taiga. It consisted in cutting down trees in one year and letting them dry. In the second year, dry trees were burned and cereals were planted there. Ashes served as fertilizer. By the way, ash is also used as a fertilizer by modern landowners. For several years the land gave a good harvest, but later it had to be given a rest.
Perelog was a southern farming system. The peasants could rid the plot of weeds for several years. When the land was exhausted, they moved to another area, and this area was left to “rest” for 10 years. This type of farming is also called arable farming and was used in the steppe forests.
The area where the sowing took place depended on what the ancient farmers were growing. In the south, buckwheat, millet, spelt, wheat were grown. In the north, the field was sown with oats, barley, millet, winter rye and spring wheat. With the development of agriculture in ancient Europe began to plant not only cereals, but also vegetables. The most common crops were trousers, beets, carrots, potatoes, pumpkins, and then legumes. As mentioned above, not everything that was grown was consumed as food. Flax and hemp were used for fabric production. All these crops were the main agricultural activity of the Eastern Slavs.
The farmer of Ancient Europe
Farming is a hard work and it is impossible without various inventions designed to help in this complex business. People began to create tools to help themselves. Those devices, which were used in Ancient Europe, have reached us, but with the passage of time they were modernized and improved. The quality and quantity of the future harvest depended directly on the tools used in agriculture. The tools used by ancient farmers include: plough, hoe, sickle, axe and others. Let’s look into it in more detail.
Photo from kpfu.ru
- Sickle. This tool was used to collect grain crops. Harvesting this crop was called harvesting. It consisted of a steel, rounded like a month, thin blade and a short wooden handle.
- Kosa. Spit is an agricultural tool for cutting grass. It has a long and sharp knife, slightly curved inside and made of steel. The handle at the spit is long, made of wood.
- The hoe. Now this tool is called a hoe. It has a length of .
a wooden handle and an armrest located perpendicular to the handle. The armrest was square in shape and made of durable metal. It was used to cut off weeds right under the root, another to weed. A kirkomotyga was used to work in hard soil.
- Plough. The plough was indispensable for ploughing. The plough served to turn over the topsoil. Most often it was made of metal. Initially, the plough was dragged by the farmers themselves, and later horses were used for this purpose.
- Socha. A tool for ploughing. Socha consisted of a thick long wooden board with two metal teeth on the edges. The working wooden part of the plough was called scattering and the iron tines were called coulters. Socha was attached to the oglobes into which the horse was drawn. This tool looks a bit like a plow, but the dryer does not turn the ground upside down, but shifts it to the side.
- Step. A device similar to a modern shovel in Europe was called an override, now the word is outdated, but the shovel continues to exist and be used in agriculture, to this day. Previously, the paddock was completely wooden, with only a metal tip. Later, a fully iron, pointed digging part was attached to a long wooden handle called a cutter. This name was formed from the word to step on, to step on.
- Rake. The rake was used and used even today, to break up lumps of already ploughed land. With the help of this tool, weeds and other unnecessary objects were collected from the cultivated soil, and the mown grass was raked into one part. It consisted of Old European rakes made of a wooden bar, which was called a ridge. Holes were made in the ridge in which iron teeth were inserted. A long wooden handle was attached to this base. In ancient Europe the rakes were manual or horse rakes, in the modern world there are rakes for a tractor. By the way, such popular expression “to step on a rake” means to make a stupid mistake as if to step on a ridge of a rake it is possible to receive a handle in a forehead.
- Forks. This is an agricultural tool used in hay gathering and loading. This tool was also used for punctures in the soil, thus increasing its oxygen supply. The forks consist of a metal barbecue part, with several teeth (three to seven pieces) and a long wooden handle. By the way, in Christian mythology, forks were considered to be an instrument of the devil and devils and were used to torture sinners in hell. This belief came out of, ish. .
..of images of ancient gods, Neptune or Poseidon, which were perceived as the devil and the trident as forks, before the first Christians. The ancient Slavs of the Gentiles did not have such associations, and pitchfork was perceived exclusively as a tool of labor.
- Chain. The chain is a connected two sticks that had mobility, the first long sticks being the handle, and the second short sticks being the threshing tool. Such a device was used to grind grain or separate grains from chaff. This tool was used not only in ancient Europe. By the way, on the basis of the chain there was a military weapon of close combat – mace or battle chain, and the famous Japanese cold weapons – nunchakus.
- Boron. The harrow was used in slash-and-burn farming, helping to avoid drying out the land and collecting weeds. It was made of wood.
Since people were pagans in the Ancient Europe era, rituals and rituals occupied a huge part of their lives. These traditions and farming were not overlooked. The Slavs believed that the rituals helped to win over the gods and guaranteed them a good harvest. As a rule, rituals were held during spring holidays.
Slavic agricultural rites.
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- Holy Farming Rites. In the first week the fasting was observed, in the second week people were guessing. The fasting lasted from January 7 to 19.
- Shrovetide rites. Such rituals were held at the end of winter on the Shrovetide from March 21, the day of the vernal equinox. The Slavs took the first pancake to the yard and put it on the ground. It was a gift to the gods Spring and Yarila. Thanks to this, the sun warmed the fields faster and more strongly.
- Purification rites. It was believed that there was a lot of wickedness going on in winter, and it had to be disposed of. At first, people washed their dwellings and themselves, collected all the garbage and burned it in the courtyards, and the smoke from the fires was supposed to drive away evil spirits. Then the fields were filled with ash from these fires. No wonder they got a good harvest from this ritual, as the ashes were a great fertilizer. At the edges of the field there were branches of willow, as for the ancient peasants it was a sacred plant, because the willow gave the first buds before other plants.
- Red Hill. In spring, everything blossomed, birds flew in and the sun shone. The first grass appeared in the fields and hills, and this created a certain contrast. Hence the name “Red Hill”, red means beautiful. The crops were rolled up in eggs, plotted and sprinkled with bone meal. Flour was supposed to protect future crops from hail. The egg was buried on the field, by .
as a symbol of fertility.
- Sacrifice. The Gentiles thought the earth was alive, she was their deity, and they thought she was hurt when she ploughed. That’s why they had to make the land work. To do this, they put bread into the furrows and after the sowing season they went around the fields with food and brothers and organized a feast. Early spring was associated with the return of birds, so the Slavs caught the bird as a symbol of spring and ate it. It was believed that this was the best way to take advantage of the forces of spring.
- Colossians. The girls took food and went to the birch, feasted around it, sang songs and danced. They believed that the birch possessed the power of fertility and wanted to use it in the fields.
- Rites dedicated to the deities Kupala and Yarila. When the harvest time came, fires were set on fire and fields were bypassed by conspiracies. This was done in honor of Kupala, who was considered the god of abundance and harvest. The bonfires were designed to ward off the fruits of evil spirits that had already ripened. God Yarilo was considered to be the god of the sun, and the sun was of great importance to the ancient Slavs, and thanks to him the crops were sown.
- The harvest festivals of baked goods (beginning of harvest) and the harvest (end of harvest). At that time, evil spirits were cast out. Solemnly baked bread from the first and last sheaves of the harvest. Grain was stored at home and mixed with the ground during the next sowing.
In the 21st century, such rituals became a remnant of the past, and special machines were used to cultivate large areas. However, we should not belittle the work of our ancestors, because they gave us the beginning for the development of modern technology. And the ancient Slavic holidays are observed at this time, just for fun and as a tribute to the traditions of our history.